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ADHD and ADD. The Hyperactive Child
By Dr Lendon H. Smith M.D. [1921-2001]

The "diagnosis" (pseudo-or quasi-) of hyperactivity or Attention Deficit Disability with and without hyperactivity has increased to the point that on any school day in the United States about 4,000,000 children receive a dose of Ritalin --- the favored drug --- so that they will settle down in the classroom and not upset the class routine and also allow these wild and disruptive children to concentrate and learn.

The use of this prescription drug has increased exponentially in the last few decades. The only diagnostic criterion we prescribing pediatricians and psychiatrists have is: "If the Ritalin works, the child needs it." It suggests that the child has a Ritalin deficiency. There is no doubt that Ritalin or other stimulant drugs have a calming effect on these over-sensitive and hyper-responding children (and adults). As time went on in my practice, I realized that many of these children came from the same mold: they were often fair, ticklish, and had obvious food sensitivities. As infants, many of them had ear infections and colic which turned out to be related to a cow milk sensitivity.

In an effort to make a more scientific diagnosis, I tested these children for nutrient deficiencies, and found that most were deficient in magnesium, especially, and calcium. Some also needed zinc, vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) and essential fatty acids. Supplementing the diets of these children plus removing dairy products and sugary nothings made a big difference in their ability to focus and sit still. Many of these children have low blood sugar from eating "junk food." Diet changes were slow to accomplish the desired results; Ritalin works in about 20 minutes. Dr. Billy Crook, Dr. Doris Rapp, and the late Dr. Ben Feingold have solved most of these children's problems with diet changes and the addition of supplements.

It is well known that our topsoil is deficient, and the foods that come from these soils are not giving most of our population what we all need for health, mental and physical. I am beginning to believe that the condition of hyperactivity is at a comparable stage to the situation in 1950 when Dr. Hoffer and Dr. Osmond gathered enough information to show that much schizophrenia was a deficiency of vitamin C and B3 in people with a genetic need for huge doses of those nutrients.

The pharmaceutical industry and psychiatrists are making this condition of ADHD a diagnosable disease, like pneumonia. It is not a disease, but a multifactorial condition and nutrition can help these children function in the over-controlled classrooms. I am a retired pediatrician who learned from Dr. Charles Bradley here in Portland of the paradoxical effects of stimulant drugs on hyper kids. It has been assumed that these children do not have enough norepinephrine in their limbic systems. This is the part of the brain that helps to screen out unimportant stimuli.

The global statement: These children are unable to disregard unimportant stimuli. Everything comes into the cortex or conscious part of the brain with equal intensity. They are goosey, ticklish; they notice everything and have to respond to those incoming stimuli. Someone drops a pencil; he has to go pick it up. This distractibility is what gets him into trouble and makes the teacher report him to the parents. This message gets to the pediatrician or the psychiatrist who feels that medication is appropriate. The science here is that the child is not making enough of a brain chemical that helps him ignore unimportant stimuli. Is it a disease or a nutritional deficiency?

In my practice I treated thousands of these children with stimulant drugs. I soon noticed a pattern. They were usually boys (5 to 1, boys to girls) and there was a strong history of obesity, diabetes, and alcoholism in the family. That suggested a sugar problem. My first therapeutic trial was to stop all foods with sugar. (That is tough) I then noticed that they were difficult to examine: ticklish, and sensitive. I could hardly do a hernia check, or look in their ears. With suitable blood and hair tests I found that all hyper kids were low in calcium and magnesium, despite excessive consumption of dairy products. They were not absorbing the nutrients they needed to correct their "neurological" problem.

My results: 60 to 80 percent of these children were 70 to 100 percent better and did not need stimulant drugs when the whole family followed these diet and supplement rules: Eat six to 10 small meals daily, consume no sugar, eat fruits and vegetables, chicken, fish, soy; take 1,000 mg of calcium daily (no cow milk), and most important, 500 mg of magnesium daily. A Mars bar for lunch is guaranteed to make the child hyper or put him to sleep.

The use of Ritalin might be used as a therapeutic test. If it works, the child needs more of that chemical (norepinephrine) in his limbic system. Essential fatty acids, zinc, B6 and other nutrients may all be necessary to help the body produce its own neurochemicals. There seems to be a monetary motivation for diagnosing ADD. The psychiatrist labels this a "disease." He gets paid and the school gets federal funds for counseling the "diagnosed" child. Doctors make diagnoses.

This is not a disease; it is a nutritional deficiency. Children are not eating foods that have magnesium in them. It is not like pneumonia, a disease, in which case a shot of penicillin might resolve cure it. ADD is multifactorial in origin and can last a lifetime. Taking measures to control the problem during childhood should help prevent the all-so-common bad self-image --- which could last a lifetime. Teachers and parents try to help control the behavior of these children with constant calls to "Sit still," "Pay attention," "Don't do that," and "What are you doing now?" Questions and commands are downers to children, who eventually get to hate themselves. It is easy to see why many hyper children end up in crime. Or police work. Or as talk show hosts.

Parents need to be advocates for their children, and work with the professionals in the school system and wherever a referral takes them. The treatment for the child usually involves counseling, nutrition, and finding an activity in which the child will succeed and then be able to feel good about himself. Home schooling may be the best choice for the affected child.

Who is the best person to diagnose the problem? The mother may realize that something is amiss even before birth. As the child grows she can usually sense that a child is not responding to discipline, does not seem to "take" to suggestions or commands, and she is the one who notes that the child does not have a good built-in stabilizer or timer. She sees that the child either over- or under-reacts to his environment. The father may not quite understand what is going on and feels that the child was not disciplined properly as he was maturing. The pediatrician may notice that the child is a terror in the office, over-reacts to the exam, and is very touchy and goosey. "What's that? What are you going to do? Will it hurt?" The teacher has the opportunity to compare the child with the thirty or so others in the classroom. The neighbors may figure that the child is a "Dennis the Menace." The psychologist and the psychiatrist may evaluate the history from the others. They want to try Ritalin or some stimulant. "If it works, he needs it."

What are the hereditary factors? My study of these hyper children indicates that most --- at least in my practice --- are blue-eyed blondes or green-eyed redheads, Nordic types. I had the feeling that the Northern Europeans were restless in the old country, and when faced with the prospect of marrying the girl next door and farming for rest of his life, he decided to emigrate to the United States. Their restlessness forced them to keep on moving West until the Pacific Ocean stopped them. But American Indians are commonly affected. They are usually boys; the ratio is 5:1, boys to girls. There is a higher than usual proportion of diabetes, obesity, and alcoholism in the families of these children so afflicted. That suggest that sugar metabolism is part of the picture. Migraine headaches, allergies, and anti-social behavior are well represented in these children's families.

How about pregnancy and birth factors? Dr. Charles Bradley who studied this phenomenon in the 1930s discovered that most of his clients had a difficult birth, had been born prematurely, had the cord around their necks, a collapsed lung, or suffered from a bilirubin excess, or other insults. These stressors can hurt the "self-control" part of the brain, but do not necessarily interfere with cognitive or intellectual functions. He was the one who stumbled on the paradoxical effects of stimulant drugs on these children. No one had ever thought of using a stimulant on children who already seemed over-stimulated. (His nurse made a mistake and gave a child Benzedrine instead of a bromide, and the child went to sleep!)

We also know that if a pregnant woman tries to lose weight during the pregnancy or gains less than twenty pounds during the nine months, the child is more likely to have the problem. Similarly if she has mercury/silver amalgam fillings either put in her cavities or removed, the child is at greater risk for this problem. Lead, cadmium, toluene, paint fumes, formaldehyde, pesticides, tobacco smoke, aspartame, etc. are dangerous for the fetus. Less than one year spacing from the next older child may not have allowed the mother to regain her nutrient and psychological health from the stress of the previous pregnancy.

Genetics are a factor, but attention problems and academic difficulties will only show up if nutritional, visual, auditory, traumatic, or emotional insults are added to the compromised nervous system. Just as Abram Hoffer discovered with his schizophrenic patients. It is multifactorial.

Sickness or injuries during childhood. The mother was unable to breastfeed him. He is sensitive to cow milk, leading to ear infections with prescriptions for many antibiotics, and subsequent yeast infections. He might have had dehydration, high fevers, inhaled objects, and meningitis. He had all the vaccines, which adversely affects some children. He has eczema, or dry skin. He was put in a walker as an infant, so did not crawl and creep in those early months of life. (Important for later reading skills.) Head injuries are common in the history of these children. He might have had fainting spells or convulsions. He complained of muscle cramps or growing pains. He awakened with night terrors. He has Jekyll and Hyde behavior.

Were there developmental delays? He might have been slow to smile, turn over, sit without support, crawl, stand, walk alone, feed self, use spoon, understand "no-no." Is he clumsy? Cannot catch a ball, accident-prone, has odd gait, stutters, stammers, lazy eye, keeps head close to paper, cannot understand what is said, handwriting atrocious, right-left confusion, gets lost frequently, and is forgetful but not necessarily. There may be sleep abnormalities: cannot get to sleep, awakens frequently, deep sleeper, bed-wetter, or restless sleep with the bed torn up.

Were there problems with food? They often have a history of colic and formula changes and often gas, cramps, sloppy stools. He prefers candy and sweets, eats a lot and stays thin, loves chocolate and peanut butter (may indicate a magnesium deficiency), loves pickles and sour food (may indicate alkalosis), Jekyll and Hyde behavior (good and bad behavior indicates blood sugar fluctuations). Food allergies and sensitivities are often indicated by gas and abdominal pains, a red ring about the anal opening, a rash at the corners of the mouth, red ear lobes, dark circles under the eyes, hives, and constant stuffy nose, and a frequent throat clearing noise (zonking). When the blood sugar bounces around, the person may have disorders of thought, feeling and behavior. The brain is dependent upon the sugar that is flowing through it. If the supply cuts down, the person operates from the reptile part of the brain --- which is selfish, mean, and anti-social. The cortex of the brain has the conscience and is the center for learning. Eating sugar or foods to which one is sensitive may lead to aggression (like road rage?), irritability, tantrums, sleeplessness, and poor ability to concentrate.

Is the problem due to a psychological condition? The following conditions are often thought to be emotional or psychogenic, but could all come from a hurt to the nervous system triggered by a food sensitivity, low blood sugar, or lack of the vitamins and minerals that allow for the optimal nervous system connections. They are never satisfied, they are frustrated easily, blame others, lie, cheat, steal, light fires. The world owes him a living, he wants revenge, he has no friends, is a bully, surly, laughs at discipline, does bad things, says "Sorry," then does it again. He may run way. He has anxiety for no obvious reason. He may be a worrywart. These should disappear after a few weeks if the proper nutritional therapy has been initiated. Psychotherapy always helps (it can help most of us), but may not be necessary

What are the chief symptoms of the ADD condition? Hyperactivity: easily stimulated in crowds or classroom, or with stress. Motor driven. Responds to stimuli with a motor action. Often needs to touch things. Short attention span; Distractible, unable to disregard unimportant things; Ticklish; Impulsive; Foot or finger tapping, sucks thumb, picks nails, twists hair, chews on buttons; These rhythmical activities and hair tests indicate that these children are low in calcium and magnesium. Many drink quarts of milk daily, as if their bodies are crying out for the calcium, but because of a sensitivity to dairy, they cannot absorb the calcium from those products. Their craving for peanut butter and chocolate suggests that they are low in magnesium, which is found in these foods. (Chocolate has more magnesium than any other food on our planet.) Magnesium deficiency is the chief cause of muscle cramps, over-sensitivity to noise, insomnia, anxiety, and an inability to disregard unimportant stimuli, which causes his distractibility. Magnesium is important for enzyme production, and here, especially, for the enzyme that manufactures the norepinephrine these people lack in their limbic, filtering system. He may be focused when in a one-to-one situation, but in a classroom full of kids just breathing, passing gas, and dropping pencils, they are unable to concentrate on the task at hand. Mood swings are the cardinal symptom when the blood sugar shoots up and then plummets. This can come from the eating of sugar, but is also observed if a person is eating foods to which he is sensitive. Sugar cravings are associated with alcoholism. (Ninety percent of alcoholics have this hypoglycemia.) The person so touched with this varies between sweet compliance and surly disobedience. If he is involved in a fight on the school grounds it is usually just before lunch because he only ate a candy bar and a bottle of pop for breakfast. Some get headaches, some fall asleep, and our hero of this story will become hyper.

The brain is a busy organ; it is the busiest one of the body. It has no storage for energy like the muscles or the liver. It is dependent upon the sugar flowing through it at the time. When the blood sugar plummets, the cerebral, thinking, social conscience part of the brain nods off, and the reptilian part of the brain takes over. It is easier to learn if the brain lights are on. What is the parent supposed to do? If the teacher notes the hyperactivity --- or hypoactivity --- plus the distractibility and the short attention span, the hallmark of the ADD child, the parents must take the evaluation seriously.

The child needs a check-up and a search for anemia, pin worms, allergies, and some evidence of a neurological or psychological disturbance that may explain the academic failure. Before the child is put on some drug, like Ritalin, Dexedrine, Cylert, or caffeine, an effort must be made to evaluate and treat the more blatant manifestations. If there is any evidence of episodic periods of consciousness lapses, an electroencephalogram might be worthwhile. (Epilepsy?) If there is any history of food sensitivities, the dairy, corn, soy, wheat and eggs must be proscribed for at least three weeks.

If there is evidence of mood swings, sugar and white flour products are not to be allowed. Twelve small meals daily are the solution. Ticklishness and distractibility can be combated with magnesium, 500-mg. daily. Without the milk, the child needs 1,000 mg. of calcium daily. If he has trouble with dream recall, he needs 25 to 50 mg. of vitamin B 6. If he has dry skin and any evidence of eczema, he needs flaxseed oil, one tablespoon daily. This helps the brain, also. If he has white spots on his nails, he needs zinc, 15 to 25 mg. daily. If he has more than a cold once a year, he needs vitamin C, 1,000 mg. daily. This would be increased to several times a day if he gets sick with anything. All the B complex vitamins should be given daily at the 50-mg. level. Folic acid and B12 at the 1 mg. level. Pantothenic acid, at about the 500 mg. level daily will help control allergies. Homeopathic remedies are safe and can work wonders. Phytochemicals from fruits and vegetables are producing good results. (The Mannatech Company has some positive research in this regard.)

How long before you see results? Two to three weeks should see some response. The distractibility and the mood swings should be under control. If dyslexia continues, then he needs reading therapy. Some children are hyper because they are frustrated because of their poor reading skills. Some people will try a prescription of Ritalin for a few days. If there is immediate improvement, it means that the child does not have enough norepinephrine in his limbic system. This is the neurotransmitter that is responsible for a person's ability to screen out unimportant stimuli. But many children are able to concentrate better when they are given Ritalin. If every sensation comes into the thinking part of the neocortex with equal intensity, the brain cannot focus on the most important one, the teacher. I believe that the drug should only be used as a diagnostic test, and not as long term therapy. But the results may lead to a false conclusion.

The diet that serves these children best consists of grazing, or nibbling, on raw fruits and vegetables. Chicken and fish, along with whole grains will balance out the diet. Breakfast might be a soft-cooked egg, or a bowl of hot oatmeal with rice, soy, or goat milk, along with some applesauce or banana. Some raisins and a few almonds as a mid-morning snack should keep the blood sugar at the right level for cerebral efficiency. Lunch might be whole grain bread with old-fashioned peanut butter along with some fruit. Another snack of raw vegetables in mid afternoon might carry the child over until supper.

Dr. Ben Feingold found that many children are hyper or non-functioning because they are sensitive to salicylate-containing foods. Apples, apricots, blackberries, cherries, cucumbers, grapes, oranges, peaches, plums, raspberries, strawberries, tomatoes, and BHT and BHA. If the diet is rotated these might be less of a problem.

If a child has had a number of infections requiring antibiotics, he may be harboring the yeast, Candida. It could hurt his immune system, and even contribute to his ADD. It can be treated. My results show that if a child has these symptoms mentioned above, and the parents follow the outlined diet, he/she will be 60 to 100 percent better in a few short weeks. Florence Scott, RN, who works in Woodburn, Oregon, has discovered that children who have been hurt can be helped to regrow nerve fibers to repair the "break" in the central nervous system wiring. Many of these children did not crawl or creep as infants. This activity is necessary to help myelinate the nerves so critical for reading. Even at his advanced age, crawling and creeping for several minutes daily will improve his reading skills.

As you can see, the problem is multifactorial: hereditary, pregnancy factors, birth trauma, oxygen deprivation, food sensitivities, emotional, poor teaching, crowded classrooms, low blood sugar, nutrient deficiencies, heavy metal poisoning, and even boredom. Some children do much better with home teaching. Start with the diet and the supplements, and then go stepwise until you find the right combination for your child. Stimulant drugs would be the last thing on the list. These children do not have a Ritalin deficiency.

The following came to me by e-mail from Dan Beeson, DC: (September, 1998)

Dose Of Reality: Too many schools give students easy access to prescription drugs. At least once a day at Barrington Middle School, Stephen LeClair sees them- fidgeting students lined up outside the nurse's office, waiting for the prescription medication they need to control the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. LeClair, principal of the rural school on the edge of New Hampshire's seacoast region, says that only the nurse is allowed to dispense such medication. The drugs, which include stimulants such as Ritalin, Dexedrine, and Cylert, are otherwise locked in the health clinic. Though such safeguards seem like common sense, a new survey of mostly rural schools in Wisconsin suggests many schools aren't nearly so careful. The lack of strict controls is troubling, the survey's researchers say, because the potential for abuse is considerable.

In their research, published recently in The Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, as many as 16 percent of the students taking stimulants for ADHD said classmates had asked them to give away, sell, or trade their drugs. "The message is: Don't have your head in the sand," says Dr. Frederick Theye, one of six study co-authors and a practicing neuropsychologist at the Marshfield Clinic's Medical Research Foundation in Marshfield, Wisconsin. "If you don't think abuse of these drugs is going on at your school, you're probably wrong." Stimulants have been used for decades in the treatment of ADHD, a disorder marked by impulsivity and an inability to concentrate. The disability affects as many as 5 percent of children in the United States, according to estimates.

A boost in the early 1990s in the production of Ritalin, a trade name for methylphenidate and the most widely used drug for ADHD, prompted some fear that the drug was being abused. The Marshfield Clinic researchers surveyed 53 elementary, middle, and high school principals in the rural areas and small towns the clinic serves. They also asked 73 area students taking Ritalin as part of a long-term clinic study to fill out anonymous questionnaires. Those students ranged in age from 10 to 21. Most of the schools --- 83 percent --- had a policy for dispensing prescription drugs at school, the researchers found. But 44 percent of the students and 37 percent of the principals said medications were stored unlocked during school hours. And 10 percent of the schools allowed students to carry around and administer the drugs themselves. Teachers dispensed the medications in a quarter of the schools surveyed. Only 4 percent of the schools followed Barrington Middle School's practice of requiring a school nurse to administer the medications. Barrington, which was not part of the Marshfield survey, requires students to bring their medications to school in the original prescription containers --- a routine followed by only half the Wisconsin schools surveyed.

Though Ritalin is less addictive than some other drugs, the researchers say the findings surprised them. They contend the results point to the need for school boards and state legislators to set and enforce policies controlling medication use in schools. DEBRA VIADERO The "Research" section is being underwritten by a grant from the Spencer Foundation.

(From August/Sept issue of American Teacher) Hyperactive kids check list: Questions to ask: Difficult or tumultuous delivery? Blue? Collapsed lungs, second of twins, cord around neck? Small for date? Does mother have mercury fillings? Weight gain during pregnancy; should be close to 30 pounds for the nine months. Allergies in family; alcoholism, obesity, hypoglycemia, diabetes. Massaged as an infant from the newborn period? Breastfed or cow milk? Ear infections, antibiotics, yeast infection, leaky gut? Food cravings, especially dairy or chocolate? Now: distractible, hyperalert, ticklish --- low magnesium, and calcium. Hair test for minerals. Jekyll and Hyde behavior from eating sugar or allergenic foods. Best to eat good foods every three hours. Rotate the diet. Poor dream recall usually means B6 deficiency. If skin dry or eczema, it may mean the need for essential fatty acids. White spots on nails and cuts are slow to heal may mean the need for zinc.

If Ritalin helps, then you know it is a biochemical mix-up. Stimulants should stimulate. Use Ritalin as a diagnosis and a temporary control. Do the diet and supplements simultaneously. Diet changes and supplements worked on about 80% of the children when the parents were conscientious and followed the rules. But what about the 20 % or so on whom it did not work. I have since found out that these things work: Homeopathy can work wonders. Chiropractic cranial adjustment can help. After one of these, the teacher called the mother and said, "I don't know what you are doing, but it is working. Do it again." It had started to wear off. Smith rule: If something works, it will not work forever. Try another approach. Neural therapy. Crawling and creeping and vestibular stimulation

What Supplements: how much and how long? For the hyper kids: better on 1,000 mg calcium, 500 mg of magnesium, and 50 mg of B6. If it works, then after a while it stops working, maybe getting too much. PICA: eating non-foods. It is not a dirt deficiency. Looking for iron or zinc deficiency. One girl loved $5 bills. If a pregnant woman is eating the wall, do you call the cops? Take her to a health food store and get "Wall in a bottle." Calcium and magnesium are usually needed. Pregnant women often eat starch. Send husband out on the 6th month of the pregnancy to get some ice cream for the baby. "Don't forget the pickles." The baby is asking for calcium, she knows instinctively that the calcium must be acidified.

Instinctual nutrition. (Severen L. Schaeffer, Bologne) food has been denatured. We no longer get the right messages from our noses and tongues. Could explain some obesity. The victim is trying to get vitamins and minerals. To do so, they get too many calories in this useless search.

Doping our kids Prescription drugs at root of violence, says expert David M. Bresnahan © 1999 WorldNetDaily.com Mind altering drugs may be the cause of violence among school children, according to some doctors and other experts. Millions of children are legally taking drugs similar to cocaine in schools every day. The drugs are Ritalin, Prozac, and others. The claims that behavioral drugs cause violence in children came after news reports that Eric Harris, one of the shooters in the Columbine High School shooting, was reported to have been taking such medication. Harris was also rejected by the Marines for medical reasons. The Marines would only say that anyone who is currently being treated by a doctor would be rejected. Other shootings and violent acts at schools across the nation have been committed by children receiving psychiatric care, counseling, and drugs such as Ritalin, according to several groups.

At least two organizations claim that over-use of Ritalin is to blame for the escalating incidents of children committing acts of violence on other children. They claim the problem has reached pandemic proportions and will get worse before it gets better. Other experts place the blame on inadequate parenting, while legislators propose new laws. A report issued in 1995 by the Drug Enforcement Agency warned that Ritalin "shares many of the pharmacological effects of ... cocaine." There are some experts who claim Ritalin can cause psychotic reactions resulting in violent behavior toward others and suicide. Defenders of the drug claim those reactions are symptoms of the condition, not the drug itself. Support for the claim that the use of Ritalin can cause psychotic reactions can be found in medical literature and studies. A simple search on the Internet revealed extensive volumes of medically credible documents listing a vast number of warnings and side effects to the drug, which is classified by the U.S. government in the same category as cocaine and heroin.

One Internet site provides frequently asked medical questions with answers from doctors. Drug Infonet warns that there are "no studies in animals or humans" and that "risks are unknown currently." Among the side effects the doctors warn about are "psychotic thought processes." "The use of Ritalin on children has no purpose other than to slow them down, shut them up, and make it more difficult for them to move around," described Dennis H. Clarke, Chairman, Executive Advisory Board, Citizens Commission on Human Rights International. He believes that Ritalin is an easy way out for parents and teachers, rather than dealing directly with behavior problems in children. Clarke also points to the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Revised Edition," published by the American Psychiatric Association, as supporting his claims of the dangers of Ritalin in children. All the critical information about Ritalin has been removed in the more recent edition, which he says supports his claim that the industry is engaged in a cover up. Proponents of the use of the drug claim the change was simply made in error.

Clarke claims that children who take Ritalin in elementary school are often switched to Prozac and other drugs as they grow older. The effects of Ritalin can cause problems long after the prescription is stopped, he added. "When they go through puberty, this becomes true speed," explained Clarke. "They get these flashbacks and their thinking goes out of control. They're now looking for downers. They want the anti-depressants. They want the tranquilizer." Clarke is not alone.

Dr. Ann Blake Tracy, director of the International Coalition for Drug Awareness is equally concerned. "They are switching lots of these kids from Ritalin to Prozac -- the frying pan into the fire routine," she told WorldNetDaily. "Kip Kinkel in the Oregon shooting last summer was a perfect example of the effects. The chances the boy in Arkansas was on it are great." She also pointed out that adults who use such drugs also commit violent crimes at a higher rate. Dr. Tracy is from Utah where the use of Ritalin and Prozac are reported to be at a rate three times greater than the rest of the country per capita. She said Utah's rate of murders and suicides has also increased by a similar amount. Dr. Tracy confirmed news reports that Harris reportedly was taking the drug Luvox, a drug in the same classification as Prozac. She said many people who take that drug are confronted with compulsive sexual behavior, in addition to exhibiting violent behavior.

The stories of violent children leave many shaking their heads in disbelief and shock. Texas law would not even permit the arrest of two boys who allegedly abducted, beat, and sexually abused a 3-year-old girl because they are too young -- seven and eight years old. An 11-year-old was arrested in the incident, but children under 10 may not be detained.

There have been numerous incidents in which young children have brought various weapons to school. Young children have recently held students at bay with guns at schools in Utah and Idaho. Some have used them, and one incident in Arkansas brought international attention when four school children and one teacher were shot dead at a middle school. Even peaceful students who were saying prayers outside their school fell victim to a classmate who gunned them down. The high number of incidents involving violent children, as well as an increase in children who commit suicide, can be attributed to an ever-increasing number of children who are being given drugs to control their behavior, according to Clarke. He agreed that the evidence for his claim is hard to come by. Medical information about the children in these incidents is typically confidential and never made public. He said he comes by his information through comments and remarks made to the press and in court, even though the actual medical records are not available to him. "We do know, for example, that the 13-year-old in Jonesboro was being treated. Apparently they were saying he had been sexually abused as a child. They were saying he was now a sexual abuser. He had a hyperactivity type label put on him as well - or 'attention deficit disorder.' So we had several different things working with him. There is no chance under the sun, moon, or stars that this kid was not on drugs," described Clarke.

Clarke went beyond his claims of psychotic side effects to the drug. He also claims that pharmaceutical companies go to great lengths and expense to cover up the problems that take place. When an incident of violence occurs, the pharmaceutical "crash teams" go to work to keep things quiet, according to Clarke. Teams of psychiatrists are sent to the places where incidents take place and quickly work to see that medical records are kept sealed, doctors are convinced to remain silent, and victims are given monetary payments to prevent them from ever going to court. "It's all being covered up, and it's deliberate. There are billions and billions of dollars at stake here," explained Clarke. He compared the cover up to the tobacco companies and the deceptions which are now apparently coming to light. Pharmaceutical companies respond to claims by Clarke and others by saying there is no credible proof to substantiate the claims.

Credible proof would require a double blind controlled study, which the scientific community could also duplicate, and that type of study would be illegal, according to Clarke. "You can't run an experiment to see if somebody is going to take an AK-47 and shoot up everyone he knows. You can't run an experiment to find out if a child is going to kill himself," explained Clarke. A thorough review of medical literature was also performed by Mary Eberstadt of the Heritage Foundation's Policy Review magazine, found in the April edition. She points out that the drug has doubled in use since 1990 and has become popular for abuse by teens who have ready access to it. "Ritalin works on children just like cocaine and other stimulants work on adults -- sharpening the short-term attention span when the drug kicks in and producing 'valleys' when the effect wears off," Eberstadt points out.

Teachers, school administrators, and even doctors hold to the belief that if a child responds well to Ritalin, then it is safe to conclude that the child suffers from ADD. A study by the National Institute of Mental Health disputes that assumption. That study shows that all children and adults who are given Ritalin will display improved performance and attention span, regardless of whether they are diagnosed with ADD or not.

Utah is reported to have the highest per capita use of Ritalin in the nation. A call to a local elementary school found a teacher who believes strongly in the use of the drug to control otherwise difficult children. She did not want her name published, but confirmed that she routinely makes recommendations for children in her classes to be given the drug. All the children she has recommended have ended up with the prescription, and their parents have expressed gratitude. She said 11 of the 29 children in her first-grade class are now taking the drug in school each day.

Clarke predicts the future will see an even greater number of violent children. Unless the correlation of the use of Ritalin with violent acts is openly established, Clarke says the general public, health officials, and parents will fail to recognize the true nature and the extent of a pandemic he says is already sweeping the nation. "Warning: sufficient data on the safety and efficacy (effectiveness) of long term use of Ritalin in children are not yet available," warns CIBA Pharmaceutical Company in a product information release. The warning is intended to serve as a protection from liability. The drug has been on the market for 50 years. "In other words, if you have a child on Ritalin, and leave the child on for a 'long term,' which is not defined but can be assumed to mean over three weeks, you are on your own as far as CIBA Pharmaceutical Company is concerned.

They have warned you," described Clarke. "Ritalin only exists to slow down the fast kids and give us quieter and less active children. We now have at least 14 quieter less active children there in Colorado. This is the product that we're going to be seeing over and over again. These children are being devastated by the drugs," he warned. Herbert S. Okun, a member of the International Drug Control Board for the United Nations held a news conference recently to issue a warning. He said his board is very concerned that methylphenidate, or Ritalin, is greatly over-prescribed in the U.S. He said there are 330 million daily doses of Ritalin taken each day in the U.S., compared with just 65 million for the rest of the world. Ritalin is prescribed for children diagnosed with ADD. The condition has never been fully proven to even exist, and the criteria for diagnosis are so general that virtually anyone would qualify for a prescription.

David M. Bresnahan, a contributing editor for WorldNetDaily.com, is the author of "Cover Up: The Art and Science of Political Deception," and offers a monthly newsletter "Talk USA Investigative Reports." He may be reached through e-mail and also maintains a website. Sue Parry, occupational therapist for 22 years speaks on behalf of Support Coalition International, an organization for psychiatric survivors. She wonders also if the over-use of Ritalin is due to economics or the increased scientific "discovery" of the condition. She points out the wide variation of the incidence of the condition in different areas of the country. Is it due to shortcomings in public education, or the need of psychiatrists to add to their diagnostic categories so that insurance companies will compensate them for "treating" this problem?

Psychiatrists have added hundreds of diseases to their list, apparently so that insurance companies will compensate them for diagnosing these "diseases." Did you know that if you are bad at math, you have the disease called "Dyscalculia?" If your mother says go to bed and you refuse, it is called Oppositional Disorder. For each of these disease categories that they have pulled out of the air, the school gets $400 or more for counseling for that child. No wonder more parents are opting for home schooling. These children are diagnosed, categorized and drugged to make them conform to someone's idea of normality. We are diverse people and the schools and teachers should be able to work around and with these different lifestyles. For six hyperkinetic children 50 mg. of pyridoxine helped control their unacceptable behavior.

If children with ADD have low whole blood serotonin levels, supplementation with vitamin B6 for three weeks increased serotonin levels and, like Ritalin, showed trends suggesting that it was more effective than placebo in decreasing the hyperkinesia. 25 mg of pyridoxal-5-phosphate or 50 mg of pyridoxine. The dose is moved up or down depending on response in activity or the serotonin level.

Melvyn Werback, M.D. Antisocial, criminal types. Wm. Walsh It is not always child abuse. One in the family might be of this type. Different from the time he was born. Grabbed spoon. Tortured the cat. Murdered the dog. Discipline was impossible. Refused everything you wanted him to do. Counseling and behavior modification of no help. Went from a residential facility straight to the penitentiary. A criminal is a person with a mother who has a broken heart. Root cause. In families there is some schizophrenia, bipolar depression. But in criminals brain chemical are off; they have weird chemical imbalances. Sibling studies. One violent and one okay. In one study with 24 pairs. The affected ones had metal imbalances. Type A: Good kid but occasional violence. Always sorry related to ADD. Red hair and blue eyes. Type B. Mean and nasty, never sorry. A real antisocial personality. With 94%accuracy, the chemical analysis would pick out the violent ones. Pfeiffer Treatment center has done 5,000 cases. 750 prisoners. Metal imbalance and histamine imbalance.

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